An official website of the United States government.

This is not the current EPA website. To navigate to the current EPA website, please go to This website is historical material reflecting the EPA website as it existed on January 19, 2021. This website is no longer updated and links to external websites and some internal pages may not work. More information »

Programs and Policies of the Office of Air and Radiation

Final Rule: Increasing Consistency in Considering Benefits and Costs in the Clean Air Act Rulemaking Process

On December 9,  2020, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized a procedural rule to improve the rulemaking process under the Clean Air Act by establishing requirements to ensure consistent, high-quality analyses of benefits and costs are provided to the public for significant rules. This final rule codifies best practices for benefit-cost analysis in rulemaking, and  will provide clarity for states, local communities, industry, and other stakeholders regarding EPA’s rulemaking considerations.  


In 2018, EPA issued an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to solicit public input on whether and how to change the way it considers benefits and costs in making regulatory decisions.  

In response to comments received, in May 2019, Administrator Wheeler sent a memo directing agency leadership to develop rules for notice and comment that outline how benefit-cost considerations will be applied to future rulemakings in a more consistent and transparent manner.

On June 11, 2020, EPA issued a proposal to establish enforceable standards for consistently high-quality analyses of benefits and costs for all significant future rulemakings promulgated under the Clean Air Act. EPA held a public hearing  on July 1, 2020.  EPA reviewed input from the Science Advisory Board, as well as nearly 25,000 public comments received, in the development of the final rule. 

Related Documents:

Proposal Documents:

Public hearing:

7/1/2020 - See information about the public hearing, view agenda, and see list of pre-registered speakers

Final Rule:

You may need a PDF reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more.