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Air Sensor Toolbox

Technical Reports and Journal Articles on Air Sensor Technology

EPA regularly publishes technical reports that provide summaries of research and other findings related to air sensor technologies. Researchers also publish results of their studies in peer-reviewed scientific journals.  

A list of highlighted reports and journal articles are provided below. Visit the EPA’s Science Inventory, a searchable online database, for other publications and presentations.

Science Inventory

Technical Reports


Peer Review and Supporting Literature Review of Air Sensor Technology Performance Targets

Summarizes an evaluation of peer-reviewed literature and other sources related to air sensors to identify performance attributes and metrics needed to obtain data for specific applications or purposes.

Spatial and Temporal Trends of Air Pollutants in the South Coast Basin Using Low Cost Sensors

Describes the deployment and laboratory evaluation of a custom-built low-cost sensor device that measures fine particulate matter, ozone, temperature, and relative humidity.


Performance Evaluation of the United Nations Environment Programme Air Quality Monitoring Unit

Summarizes a 30-day field evaluation of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) sensor pod to establish basic performance characteristics.


Citizen Science Air Monitoring in the Ironbound Community

Summarizes a pilot project that involved EPA collaboration with the Ironbound community action group in Newark, New Jersey to conduct a citizen science air monitoring project.

Journal Articles (Peer-reviewed and Non peer-reviewed)


Opportunities and challenges for filling the air quality data gap in low- and middle-income countries, Atmospheric Environment, 2019

Provides an overview of the state of air monitoring technology in low- and middle- income countries and how air sensors might be integrated.

Toward a unified terminology of processing levels for low-cost air-quality sensors, Environmental Science & Technology, 2019

Provides a suggested terminology to describe different data processing levels applied to low cost-sensor data.

Examining spatiotemporal variability of urban particulate matter and application of a high-time resolution data from a network of low-cost air pollution sensors, Atmospheric Environment, 2019

Summarizes a network deployment of low-cost particulate matter sensors in Memphis, TN.

Observed data quality concerns involving air sensors, Atmospheric Environment: X, 2019

Provides examples of data quality issues associated with particulate matter sensors and total volatile organic carbon sensors.

Rubbertown next generation emissions measurement demonstration project, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2019

Provides an overview of the Rubbertown project in Louisville, KY and use of emerging next generation emissions measurements to understand fugitive emissions of volatile organic compounds and hazardous air pollutants.

The Kansas City Transportation and Local-Scale Air Quality Study (KC-TRAQS): Integration of low-cost sensors and reference grade monitoring in a complex metropolitan area. Part 1: Overview of the Project, Chemosensors, 2019

Provides an overview of the KC-TRAQS project in Kansas City, KS and initial results from low-cost sensor measurements focusing on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon.

Deliberating performance targets workshop: Potential paths for emerging PM2.5 and O3 air sensor progress, Atmospheric Environment: X, 2019

Summarizes the 2018 Air Sensors Workshop on ‘Deliberating Performance Targets for Air Quality Sensors.’


Air sensors 2018: Deliberating performance targets, EM Magazine, 2018

Provides highlights from EPA’s Air Sensor 2018 Deliberating Performance Targets Workshop.

Applications of low-cost sensing technologies for air quality monitoring and exposure assessment: How far have they gone?, Environment International, 2018

Provides a broad overview of the current state of air sensor technologies for exposure assessment.

Spatial-Temporal Analysis of PM2.5 and NO2 Concentrations Collected Using Low-Cost Sensors in Peñuelas, Puerto Rico, Sensors, 2018

Describes the deployment of a custom-built low-cost sensor system for PM2.5 and NO2 as part of citizen science project in Puerto Rico.

Field test of several low-cost particulate matter sensors in high and low concentration urban environments, Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 2018

Summarizes results from the deployment of low-cost particle sensors in two different environments – Atlanta, Georgia (US) and Hydradab, India.

Long-term evaluation of air sensor technology under ambient conditions in Denver, Colorado, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 2018

Summarizes a 7-month field evaluation of a low-cost sensor in Denver, Colorado.

Advice and frequently asked questions (FAQs) for citizen-science environmental health assessments, Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2018

Describes two citizen science environmental health assessments along with advice and lessons learns on public communication for citizen science projects.

Air quality sensors and data adjustment algorithms: When is it no longer a measurement?, Environmental Science & Technology, 2018

Summarizes emerging issues related to using data adjustment algorithms on air sensor measurements.

Understanding social and behavioral drivers and impact of air quality sensor use, Science of the Total Environment, 2018

Provides a commentary on how social science can be used to understand perceptions, attitudes, behaviors, and other human factors that may drive the use of air sensors and the data sensors generate.


Low-Cost Air Quality Monitoring Tools: From Research to Practice (A Workshop Summary), Sensors, 2017

Summarizes a 2017 workshop with practitioners who work with low-cost sensors to collect air quality measurement.]

Interpreting Mobile and Handheld Air Sensor Readings in Relation to Air Quality Standards and Health Effect Reference Values: Tackling the Challenges, Atmosphere, 2017

Review of challenges, successes, and emerging tools as discussed by the Air Sensors Health Group (ASHG), a collaboration of numerous Federal agencies.

A small, lightweight multipollutant sensor system for ground-mobile and aerial emission sampling from open area sources, Atmospheric Environment, 2017

Summarizes a study using small scale sensors and samplers for air pollution emission characterization.

Low-cost sensor POD design considerations, EM Magazine, 2017

Summarizes design considerations for custom-built sensor pods.

A citizen science and government collaboration: Developing tools to facilitate community air monitoring, Environmental Justice, 2017

Summarizes a collaboration with EPA and the Ironbound Community Corporation to monitor air pollution using custom-built low-cost sensor pods.

Characterizing air quality in a rapidly changing world, EM Magazine, 2017

Discusses projects that collect large volumes of air quality data around the U.S. and how that data collection fits into air quality management and characterization.


Performance evaluation and community application of low-cost sensors for ozone and nitrogen dioxide, Sensors, 2016

Describes a month-long evaluation of a low-cost sensor for ozone and NO2 in Houston, TX and Denver, CO and use of the sensor in a citizen science application].

Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) project: evaluation of low-cost sensor performance in a suburban environment in southeastern United States, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 2016

Summarizes a low-cost sensor, long-term deployment study in Atlanta (Georgia).

Advanced monitoring technology: Opportunities and challenges – A path forward for EPA and States, EM Magazine, 2016

Provides a joint EPA and State perspective on using air sensors for environmental applications.