An official website of the United States government.

This is not the current EPA website. To navigate to the current EPA website, please go to This website is historical material reflecting the EPA website as it existed on January 19, 2021. This website is no longer updated and links to external websites and some internal pages may not work. More information »

Assessing and Managing Chemicals under TSCA

Risk Evaluation for n-Methylpyrrolidone (NMP)

EPA evaluated n-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) under the amended Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and completed the final risk evaluation in December 2020. The next step in the process required by TSCA is addressing these risks. EPA will now begin the process of developing ways to address the unreasonable risks identified and has one year to propose and take public comments on any risk management actions.

Find information about other chemicals undergoing risk evaluations under TSCA

On this page:

Background on NMP

NMP, also called n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, or 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, is a chemical that is widely used during the manufacture and production of electronics, polymers, agrichemicals and petrochemical products. Information from the 2016 Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) for NMP indicates the reported production volume is more than 160 million lbs/year (manufacture and import).

Uses of NMP

NMP is a solvent that is used widely in the manufacture and production of electronics, petrochemical products, polymers and other specialty chemicals. It has numerous industrial, commercial, and consumer applications.  

Risk Evaluation of NMP under Amended TSCA

In December 2020, EPA released the final risk evaluation for NMP. The final risk evaluation shows that there are unreasonable risks to workers and consumers from 26 conditions of use. EPA found no unreasonable risks to the environment, general population, bystanders, or occupational non-users.

In November 2019, EPA released the draft risk evaluation for NMP for public comment and peer review. 

In June 2017, EPA released the scope document for NMP which includes the hazards, exposures, conditions of use, and the potentially exposed or susceptible subpopulations EPA expects to consider in its risk evaluation of NMP conducted pursuant to TSCA section 6(b). In June 2018, EPA released the problem formulation for NMP which refined the scope of the NMP risk evaluation by clarifying the chemical uses that EPA expected to evaluate and describing how EPA expected to conduct the evaluation. 

After releasing the scope documents for each of the first 10 chemicals undergoing risk evaluation under TSCA, the dockets for each of these first 10 chemicals were open for public comments. Read EPA’s Responses to Public Comments Received on the Scope Documents for the First Ten Chemicals for Risk Evaluation under TSCA. This document addresses cross-cutting public comments received in response to the scope document.

Review of NMP Prior to the Lautenberg Act

Prior to theFrank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act, EPA completed a risk assessment for NMP and published the following information: