1990 Clean Air Act Amendment Summary: Title IV
Acid Deposition Control
As many know, acid rain occurs when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions are transformed in the atmosphere and return to the earth in rain, fog or snow. Approximately 20 million tons of SO2 are emitted annually in the United States, mostly from the burning of fossil fuels by electric utilities. Acid rain damages lakes, harms forests and buildings, contributes to reduced visibility, and is suspected of damaging health.
The new Clean Air Act will result in a permanent 10 million ton reduction in sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from 1980 levels. To achieve this, EPA will allocate allowances in two phases permitting utilities to emit one ton of sulfur dioxide. The first phase, effective January 1, 1995, requires 110 powerplants to reduce their emissions to a level equivalent to the product of an emissions rate of 2.5 lbs of SO2/mmBtu x an average of their 1985-1987 fuel use. Plants that use certain control technologies to meet their Phase I reduction requirements may receive a two year extension of compliance until 1997. The new law also allows for a special allocation of 200,000 annual allowances per year each of the 5 years of Phase I to power plants in Illinois, Indiana and Ohio.
The second phase, becoming effective January 1, 2000, will require approximately 2000 utilities to reduce their emissions to a level equivalent to the product of an emissions rate of 1.2 lbs of SO2/mm Btu x the average of their 1985-1987 fuel use. In both phases, affected sources will be required to install systems that continuously monitor emissions in order to track progress and assure compliance.
The new law allows utilities to trade allowances within their systems and/or buy or sell allowances to and from other affected sources. Each source must have sufficient allowances to cover its annual emissions. If not, the source is subject to a $2,000 /ton excess emissions fee and a requirement to offset the excess emissions in the following year.
Nationwide, plants that emit SO2 at a rate below 1.2 lbs/mmBtu will be able to increase emissions by 20% between a baseline year and 2000. Bonus allowances will be distributed to accommodate growth by units in states with a statewide average below 0.8 lbs/mmBtu. Plants experiencing increases in their utilization in the last five years also receive bonus allowances. 50,000 bonus allowances per year are allocated to plants in 10 midwestern states that make reductions in Phase I. Plants that repower with a qualifying clean coal technology may receive a 4 year extension of the compliance date for Phase II emission limitations.
The new law also includes specific requirements for reducing emissions of nitrogen oxides, based on EPA regulations to be issued not later than mid-1992 for certain boilers and 1997 for all remaining boilers.
Full text, Title IV-A - Acid Deposition Control