An official website of the United States government.

This is not the current EPA website. To navigate to the current EPA website, please go to This website is historical material reflecting the EPA website as it existed on January 19, 2021. This website is no longer updated and links to external websites and some internal pages may not work. More information »


Compliance Monitoring Programs

Assuring Compliance with Environmental Laws

EPA and its regulatory partners perform compliance monitoring activities for 44 programs authorized by seven statutes.  These activities include:

  • conducting inspections and investigations,
  • overseeing imports and exports of environmental substances, and
  • providing training to federal, state, and tribal personnel.

Inspection manuals and other guidance provide a uniform framework for EPA’s compliance monitoring activities.

Who Monitors Compliance

Generally, each program is unique to an environmental statute, but some encompass multiple statutes. The  Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance (OECA) at EPA headquarters implements some of the 44 programs, while EPA regional offices, states, or tribes administer others.

Goals of Compliance Monitoring

Compliance monitoring is a key component of any effective environmental compliance and enforcement program.  It encompasses all of the means used to make a compliance determination.  The primary goals of compliance monitoring include:

  • Assessing and documenting compliance with permits and regulations,
  • Supporting the enforcement process through evidence collection,
  • Monitoring compliance with enforcement orders and decrees,
  • Creating deterrence, and
  • Providing feedback on implementation challenges to permit and rule writers.

Air Compliance Monitoring