Cooling Water Intakes
Thousands of industrial facilities use large volumes of water from lakes, rivers, estuaries or oceans to cool their plants.
- Organisms may be killed or injured by heat, physical stress, or by chemicals used to clean the cooling system.
- Larger organisms may be killed or injured when they are trapped against screens at the front of an intake structure.
Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires EPA to issue regulations on the design and operation of intake structures, in order to minimize adverse impacts.
The cooling water intake requirements are included in the NPDES permit regulations, 40 CFR Parts 122 & 125 (Subparts I, J, & N).
Final Rule - Federal Register Notice (August 15, 2014)
2001-2006 regulations (New facilities)