An official website of the United States government.

This is not the current EPA website. To navigate to the current EPA website, please go to This website is historical material reflecting the EPA website as it existed on January 19, 2021. This website is no longer updated and links to external websites and some internal pages may not work. More information »

EPA EcoBox

EPA EcoBox Tools by Stressors - Biological




Examples of biological stressors include:

For biological stressors, exposure analysis may evaluate entry, dispersal, survival, and reproduction of the biological stressor. Species' population dynamics and species interactions may also be important considerations. Because biological stressors can reproduce, interact with other organisms, and evolve over time, exposure and effects can be difficult to quantify. Life-history data of interest might include temperature and substrate preferences, important predators, competitors or diseases, habitat needs, and reproductive rates (U.S. EPA 1998).

Invasive Species Websites
U.S. Federal Agency Websites
U.S. Department of Agriculture National Invasive Species Information Center (NISIC)
Natural Resources Conservation Service: Introduced, Invasive, and Noxious Plants
U.S. Geological Survey Invasive Species Program
Nonindigenous Aquatic Species
U.S. Department of the Interior National Invasive Species Council
U.S. State Websites The following links exit the site Exit
Alabama None available
Alaska Invasive Species 
Arizona Aquatic Invasive Species
Arkansas None available
California Invasive Species Program
Invasive Species of California
Colorado None available
Connecticut Invasive Species
Delaware Invasive Species
Florida Invasive Plant Management
Florida's Nonnative Fish and Wildlife
Georgia Invasive Species Strategy
Hawaii Hawaii Invasive Species Council
Idaho Invasive Species of Idaho
Illinois Invasive Species
Indiana Invasive Species
Iowa Fighting Invasive Species
Kansas Invasive Species
Kentucky Nuisance Wildlife
Nuisance Species Plans
Louisiana Aquatic Species: Invasive Species/Prohibited Exotics
Maine Maine Invasive Plant Fact Sheets
Maryland Invasive and Exotic Species in Maryland
Maryland's Invasive and Exotic Species
Massachusetts Invasive Species
Michigan Michigan Invasive Species
Minnesota Invasive Species in Minnesota
Mississippi Mississippi Forestry Commission: Invasive Species
Department of Marine Resources: Invasive Species
Missouri Invasive Animals
Invasive Plants
Montana Aquatic Invasive Species
Noxious Weed Management
Nebraska Aquatic Invasive Species
Nevada Aquatic Invasive Species Prevention Program
New Hampshire Invasive Species
New Jersey New Jersey Invasive Species Council
New Mexico Aquatic Invasive Species
New York Nuisance & Invasive Species
Invasive Species and Noxious Weeds
North Carolina None available
North Dakota Invasive Species
Noxious Weeds
Ohio Invasive Species in Ohio
Oklahoma Tree and Forest Health: Invasive Species
Oregon Invasive Species: Stop Their Spread
Pennsylvania Invasive Plants in Pennsylvania
Rhode Island Invasive Species
South Carolina Aquatic Nuisance Species Program
South Dakota None available
Tennessee Tennessee Aquatic Invasive Species
Texas Aquatic Invasive Species
Utah Invasive mussels
Vermont Invasive Species in Vermont 
Aquatic Invasive Species in Vermont
Virginia Invasive Plant Species of Virginia
Invasive Insects and Species
Washington Aquatic Plants Manual
Washington Invasive Species Council
West Virginia Exotic/Invasive Species
Wisconsin Invasive Species
Wyoming Aquatic Invasive Species Information

Top of Page

Top of Page


Tools that are applicable to conducting ERAs for biological stressors are provided below.

Some content on this page requires JavaScript in order to be viewed. If you wish to view content on this page, you must have JavaScript enabled.

Top of Page