An official website of the United States government.

This is not the current EPA website. To navigate to the current EPA website, please go to This website is historical material reflecting the EPA website as it existed on January 19, 2021. This website is no longer updated and links to external websites and some internal pages may not work. More information »

Working Paper: Diving Demand for Large Ship Artificial Reefs

Paper Number: 2007-09

Document Date: 12/2007

Author(s): Ash Morgan, D. Matthew Massey, and William L. Huth

Subject Area(s): Recreation/Travel Demand; Marine/Coastal Zone Resources

Keywords: artificial reefs; diving; bundled public goods; recreation demand; non‐market valuation

Abstract: Using data drawn from a web‐based travel cost survey, we jointly model revealed and stated preference trip count data in an attempt to estimate the recreational use value from diving the intentionally sunk ex‐USS Oriskany. Respondents were asked to report (1) their actual trips from the previous year, (2) their anticipated trip in the next year, and (3) their anticipated trip next year assuming a second dive‐able destroyer were sunk in the same vicinity. Results from a single‐site Poisson and negative binomial travel cost model indicate an annual use value of $1,215 per diver associated with current Oriskany‐specific dive trips. Expected annual use value estimates then increase to $2,596 with the “bundling” of a second vessel alongside the Oriskany to create a multiple‐ship artificial reef area.

Published: Morgan, O. A., D. M. Massey and W.L. Huth. 2009. "Diving Demand for Large Ship Artificial Reefs," Marine Resource Economics, 24(1): 43-59.

This paper is part of the Environmental Economics Working Paper Series.

You may need a PDF reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more.