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Environmental Sampling and Analytical Methods (ESAM) Program

Biotoxin Methods Query Results

Please note: The web page you are viewing requires JavaScript. This web page is an enhancement to provide users of the Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM) - 2017 document with the ability to search the analytical methods it contains. If you are unable to use the query, the methods may also be found in the PDF version of the document. In addition, due to the complexity of some tables and graphics, some of our products are not amenable to a screen reader. 

If you have trouble accessing information contact Kathleen Nickel ( and alternative accommodations will be made.

See: Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM) - 2017.

SAM provides a list of methods to be used in analyzing environmental samples for biotoxins during remediation activities following a contamination incident. Procedures and methods have been selected for each biotoxin that may need to be identified and/or quantified during remediation. Analytical procedures are not currently available for all the biotoxin/sample type combinations included in SAM, and on-going research efforts include identification of additional methods, as well as development and testing of some of the procedures listed. Users should refer to the specified methods and reference citations to identify biotoxin/sample type combinations that have been verified, and should also consider the possibility of analytical interferences inherent to environmental sample types (e.g., sample composition, the presence and concentrations of additional or competing biotoxins or biotoxin variants.

Any questions regarding this information should be addressed to the appropriate contact(s). See SAM Technical Contacts.

The fitness of a method for its intended use is related to data quality objectives (DQOs) for a particular remediation activity. The tiers below have been assigned to the methods selected for each SAM biotoxin/sample type pair to indicate a level of method usability for the specific biotoxin and sample type for which it has been selected. The assigned tiers reflect the conservative view for DQOs involving timely implementation of methods for analysis of a high number of samples (such that multiple laboratories are necessary), and appropriate QC. The sample types reflect representative examples and are not necessarily inclusive of all sample types that might be encountered by laboratories following a contamination incident.

Method-specific usability tiers are provided in SAM Appendix D.  See SAM 2017 Appendix D: Selected Biotoxin Methods.

Tier I: The biotoxin and sample type are both targets of the method(s). Data are available for all aspects of method performance and QC measures supporting its use without modifications.

Tier II: The biotoxin is a target of the method, and the method has been evaluated by one or more laboratories. The sample type may or may not be a target of the method, and available data and/or information regarding sample preparation indicate that analyses of similar sample types were successful. However, additional testing and/or modifications may be needed.

Tier III: The sample type is not a target of the method, and no reliable data supporting the method's fitness for its intended use are available. Data suggest, however, that the method(s) may be applicable with significant modification.

Note: Please see SAM Updates for important information about updates to SAM methods that may supercede methods listed in the SAM document and the results of this query.

Method AppliesMethod applies
Not of Concern: Not of concern in this sample type
Method Applies with footnote\n to see footnote click on image : A footnote or additional information applies when using this method. The actual footnote may be viewed by clicking on the image.

Due to the complexity of some tables and graphics, some of our information is not amenable to a screen reader. If you have trouble accessing information contact Kathleen Nickel ( and accommodations will be made.