Green Infrastructure and Ground Water Impacts
Many green infrastructure practices allow stormwater to soak into the ground as it would in a natural setting. This management approach has the potential to:
- restore ground water recharge rates; but also
- introduce pollutants into the subsurface, and
- save money in groundwater resources when applying the practices to new development and redevelopment. See: Estimating Monetized Benefits of Groundwater Recharge from Stormwater Retention Practices.
These reports and articles examine the ability of green infrastructure to both increase ground water recharge and treat infiltrated water.
Appleyard, S. J. 1993. Impact of stormwater infiltration basins on groundwater quality, Perth metropolitan region, western Australia Exit. Environmental Geology 21(4):227–236.
Barraud, S., A. Gautier, J. P. Bardin, and V. Riou. 1999. The Impact of intentional stormwater infiltration on soil and groundwater Exit. Water Science and Technology 39(2):185–192.
Boving, T., M. Stolt, J. Augenstern, and B. Brosnan. 2008. Potential for localized groundwater contamination in a porous pavement parking lot setting in Rhode Island Exit. Environmental Geology 55(3):571–582.
Brattebo, B. O., and D. B. Booth. 2003. Long-term stormwater quantity and quality performance of permeable pavement systems Exit. Water Research 37(18):4369–4376.
Bruce, B. W., and P. B. McMahon. 1996. Shallow ground-water quality beneath a major urban center: Denver, Colorado, USA Exit. Journal of Hydrology 186(1–4):129–151.
Datry, T., F. Malard, and J. Gibert. 2004. Dynamics of solutes and dissolved oxygen in shallow urban groundwater below a stormwater infiltration basin Exit. Science of the Total Environment 329(1–3):215–229.
Davis, A. P., M. Shokouhian, H. Sharma, and C. Minami. 2001. laboratory study of biological retention for urban stormwater management Exit. Water Environment Research 73(1):5–14.
Davis, A. P., M. Shokouhian, H. Sharma, C. Minami, and D. Winogradoff. 2003. water quality improvement through bioretention: Lead, copper, and zinc removal Exit. Water Environment Research 75 (1):73–82.
Day, G. E., D. R. Smith, and J. Bowers. 1981. Runoff and Pollution Abatement Characteristics of Concrete Grid Pavements (PDF)(10 pp, 776 K, About PDF) Exit. Project A-090-VA VPI-VWRRC-BULL 135 4C. Virginia Water Resources Research Center, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.
Dietz, M. E., and J. C. Clausen. 2005. A field evaluation of rain garden flow and pollutant treatment. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 167(1–4):123–138.
Fischer, D., E. G. Charles, and A. L. Baehr. 2003. Effects of stormwater infiltration on quality of groundwater beneath retention and detention basins Exit. Journal of Environmental Engineering 129(5):464–471.
Gilbert, J. K., and J. C. Clausen. 2006. Stormwater runoff quality and quantity from asphalt, paver, and crushed stone driveways in Connecticut Exit. Water Research 40(4):826–832.
Granato, G. E., P. E. Church, and V. J. Stone. 1995. Mobilization of Major and Trace Constituents of Highway Runoff in Groundwater Potentially Caused by Deicing Chemical Migration (PDF)(14 pp, 1.9 MB, About PDF) Exit. Prepared for the Transportation Research Board. Transportation Research Record 1483. National Research Council, Washington, DC.
Hathhorn, W. E., and D. R. Yonge. 1995. The Assessment of Groundwater Pollution Potential Resulting from Stormwater Infiltration BMPs (PDF)(188 pp, 1 MB, About PDF) Exit. Technical report. Prepared by Washington State Transportation Center (TRAC) for Washington State Transportation Commission, Olympia, WA.
Kelly, W. R. 2008. Long-term trends in chloride concentrations in shallow aquifers near Chicago. Ground Water 46(5):772–781.
Kunze, A. E., and B. N. Sroka. 2004. Effects of Highway Deicing Chemicals on Shallow Unconsolidated Aquifers in Ohio - Final Report. Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5150. Prepared in cooperation with the Ohio Department of Transportation and the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO.
Legret, M., and V. Colandini. 1999. Effects of a porous pavement with reservoir structure on runoff water: Water quality and fate of heavy metals (PDF)(7 pp, 364 K, About PDF) Exit. Water Science and Technology 39(2):111–117.
Mikkelsen, P., M. Hafliger, M. Ochs, P. Jacobsen, J. Tjell, and M. Boller. 1997. Pollution of soil and groundwater from infiltration of highly contaminated stormwater – A case study. Water Science and Technology 36(8-9):325–330.
Pitt, R., S. Clark, K. Parmer, and R. Field. 1996. Groundwater Contamination from Stormwater Infiltration. Ann Arbor Press, Inc., Chelsea, MI.
Thomas, M. A. 2000. The Effect of residential development on ground-water quality near Detroit, Michigan Exit. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 36(5):1023-1038.
Wilson, L. G., M. D. Osborn, K. L. Olson, S. M. Maida, and L. T. Katz. 1990. The ground water recharge and pollution potential of dry wells in Pima County, Arizona Exit. Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation 10(3):114–121.