An official website of the United States government.

This is not the current EPA website. To navigate to the current EPA website, please go to This website is historical material reflecting the EPA website as it existed on January 19, 2021. This website is no longer updated and links to external websites and some internal pages may not work. More information »

Research References Related to Indoor Air Quality in Schools

These references are used in the research presented in these pages, they are sorted in alphabetic order.

  1. Abramson, S., A. Turner-Henson, et al. 2006. “Allergens in school settings: Results of environmental assessments in 3 city school systems.” Journal of School Health 76(6):246-249.
  2. Akinbami, L.J. 2006. “The state of childhood asthma, United States, 1980–2005.” Advance data from vital and health statistics; Hyattsville, MD, National Center for Health Statistics: 381.
  3. Apte, M., W. Fisk, and J. Daisey. 2000. “Associations between indoor CO2 concentrations and sick building syndrome symptoms in U.S. Office buildings: An analysis of the 1994-1996 BASE study data.” Indoor Air10(4):246-257.
  4. ASHRAE. 2007. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1, “Ventilation for acceptable indoor air quality.” American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Atlanta, GA.
  5. Bornehag, C.G., G. Blomquist, et al. 2001. “Dampness in buildings and health: Nordic interdisciplinary review of the scientific evidence on associations between exposure to ‘dampness’ in buildings and health effects (NORDDAMP).” Indoor Air 11(2):72-86. 
  6. Branham, D. 2004. “The wise man builds his house upon the rock: The effects of inadequate school building infrastructure on student attendance.” Social Science Quarterly (85) 5.
  7. Burr, M.L. 2000. Combustion Products. Indoor Air Quality Handbook. Eds., J. Spengler, J.M. Samet, and J.F. McCarthy. New York, McGraw-Hill:29.3-29.25.
  8. California Energy Commission. 1995. Air exchange rates in non-residential buildings in California. California Energy Commission. 
  9. Cash, C.S. 1993. “Building condition and student achievement and behavior.” Blacksburg, VA: Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
  10. Dangman, K.H., A.L. Bracker, and E. Storey. 2005. “Work-associated asthma in teachers in Connecticut: Association with chronic water damage and fungal growth in schools.” Connecticut Medicine 69(1):9-17.
  11. Douglas, J.W.B. and J.M. Ross. 1965. “The effects of absence on primary school performance.” The British Journal of Educational Psychology 35:28-40.
  12. Earthman, G.I., C.S. Cash, and D. Van Berkum. 1995. “Student achievement and behavior and school building condition.” Journal of School Business Management, 8(3).
  13. Ebbehoj, N.E., H.W. Meyer, et al. 2005. “Molds in floor dust, building-related symptoms, and lung function among male and female schoolteachers.” Indoor Air 15 (Supplement 10):7-16.
  14. Fang, L., G. Clausen, and P.O. Fanger. 1998. “Impact of temperature and humidity on the perception of indoor air quality.” Indoor Air 8(2):80-90. 
  15. Fang, L., G. Clausen, and P.O. Fanger. 1998. “Impact of temperature and humidity on perception of indoor air quality during immediate and longer whole-body exposures.” Indoor Air 8(4):276-284. 
  16. Fang, L., P. Wargocki, et al. 1999. “Field study on the impact of temperature, humidity and ventilation on perceived air quality.” Proceedings, Indoor Air '99: The 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate. Edinburg, Scotland.2:107-112. 
  17. Fisk, W.J., Q. Lei-Gomez, and M.J. Mendell. 2007. “Meta-analyses of the associations of respiratory health effects with dampness and mold in homes.” Indoor Air 17(4):284-295.
  18. Fogarty, R. 2000. “Eliminating IAQ complaints by eliminating ultrafine particles.” Proceedings, Healthy Buildings 2000. Espoo, Finland. 1:207-211. 
  19. Franklin, P.J., P.W. Dingle, et al. 2000. “Formaldehyde exposure in homes is associated with increased levels of exhaled nitric oxide in healthy children.” Proceedings, Healthy Buildings 2000. Espoo, Finland.1:65-70.
  20. Garrett, M.H., M.A. Hooper, et al. 1999. “Increased risk of allergy in children due to formaldehyde exposure in homes.” Allergy 54(4):330-337.
  21. Gravesen, S., P. Skov, et al. 1990. “The role of potential immunogenic components of dust (MOD) in the sick-building-syndrome.” Proceedings, Indoor Air ’90: The 5th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate. Toronto, Canada. 1:9-13.
  22. Guo, Y.L., Y.C. Lin, et al. 1999. “Climate, traffic-related air pollutants, and asthma prevalence in middle-school children in Taiwan.” Environmental Health Perspectives 107(12):1001-1006.
  23. Gyntelberg, F., P. Suadicani, et al. 1994. “Dust and the sick building syndrome.” Indoor Air 4(4):223-238.
  24. Hines, E.W. 1996. “Building condition and student achievement and behavior.” Blacksburg, VA: Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
  25. Institute of Medicine. Committee on the Assessment of Asthma and Indoor Air. 2000. Clearing the Air: Asthma and Indoor Exposures. Washington, D.C., National Academy Press.
  26. Kemp, P.C., P. Dingle, et al. 1998. “Particulate matter intervention study: A casual factor of building-related symptoms in an older building.” Indoor Air 8 (3):153-172.
  27. Lander, F., H.W. Meyer, and S. Norn. 2001. “Serum IgE specific to indoor molds, measured by basophile histamine release, is associated with building-related symptoms in damp buildings.” Inflammation Research 50:227-231.
  28. Li, Y., M. Leung, et al. 2007. “Role of ventilation in airborne transmission of infectious agents in the built environment--a multidisciplinary systematic review.” Indoor Air 17(1):2-18.
  29. McCoach, J.S., A.S. Robertson, et al. 1999. “Floor cleaning materials as a cause of occupational asthma.”Proceedings, Indoor Air '99: The 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate. Edinburgh, Scotland. 5:459-467. 
  30. Meklin, T., T. Husman, et al. 2002. “Indoor air microbes and respiratory symptoms of children in moisture damaged and reference schools.” Indoor Air 12(3):175-183.
  31. Mendell, M. 1993. “Non-specific symptoms in office workers: A review and summary of the epidemiologic literature.” Indoor Air 3(4):227-236.
  32. Mendell, M.J., G.N. Naco, et al. 2003. “Environmental risk factors and work-related lower respiratory symptoms in 80 office buildings: An exploratory analysis of NIOSH data.” American Journal Industrial Medicine 43:630-641.
  33. Menzies, R., R. Tamblyn, et al.1993. “The effect of varying levels of outdoor-air supply on the symptoms of sick building syndrome.” New England Journal of Medicine 328(12):821-827.
  34. Meyer, H.W., H. Würtz, et al. 2004. Members of a working group under the Danish mould in buildings program (DAMIB). “Molds in floor dust and building-related symptoms in adolescent school children.” Indoor Air 14(1):65-72.
  35. Meyer, H.W., H. Würtz, et al. 2005. “Molds in floor dust and building-related symptoms among adolescent school children: A problem for boys only?” Indoor Air 15 (Supplement 10):17-24.
  36. Millard, M.W., P.T. Johnson, et al. 2009. “Children with asthma miss more school: Fact or fiction.” Chest 35:303-306.
  37. Milton, D.K., P.M. Glencross, et al. 2000. “Risk of sick leave associated with outdoor air supply rate, humidification, and occupant complaints.” Indoor Air 10(4):212-221.
  38. Mudarri, D. and W. J. Fisk, 2007. “Public health and economic impact of dampness and mold.” Indoor Air17(3):226-235.
  39. Myhrvold, A.N., E. Olsen, and O. Lauridsen 1996. “Indoor environment in schools — Pupils health and performance in regard to CO2 concentrations.” Proceedings, Indoor Air '96: The 7th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate. Nagoya, Japan.4:369-371.
  40. Nazaroff, W.W. and C.J. Weschler. 2004. “Cleaning products and air fresheners: Exposure to primary and secondary air pollutants.” Atmospheric Environment 38:2841-2865.
  41. Norbäck, D., R. Walinder, et al. 2000. “Indoor air pollutants in schools: Nasal patency and biomarkers in nasal lavage.” Allergy 55(2):163-170.
  42. O'Neil, S.L., N. Barysh, et al. 1985. “Determining school programming needs of special population groups: A study of asthmatic children.” Journal of School Health 55(6):237-239.
  43. Park, J.H., P.L. Schleiff, et al. 2004. “Building-related respiratory symptoms can be predicted with semi-quantitative indices of exposure to dampness and mold.” Indoor Air 14(6):425-433.
  44. Pazdrak, K., P. Gorski, et al. 1993. “Changes in nasal lavage fluid due to formaldehyde inhalation.” International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 64(7):515-519.
  45. Pilotto, L.S., R.M. Douglas, et al. 1997. “Respiratory effects associated with indoor nitrogen dioxide exposure in children.” International Journal of Epidemiology 26(4):788-796.
  46. Platts-Mills, T.A.E. 2000. “Allergens derived from arthropods and domestic animals.” Indoor Air Quality Handbook. Eds., J. Spengler, J. M. Samet, and J. F. McCarthy. New York, McGraw-Hill:43.1-43.15.
  47. Purokivi, M.K., M.R. Hirvonen, et al. 2001. “Changes in pro-inflammatory cytokines in association with exposure to moisture-damaged building microbes. European Respiratory Journal 18:951-958.
  48. Raw, G.J., M.S. Roys, and C. Whitehead. 1993. “Sick building syndrome: Cleanliness is next to healthiness.” Indoor Air 3(4):237-245.
  49. Rudblad, S., K. Andersson, et al. 2001. “Nasal hyper reactivity among teachers in a school with a long history of moisture problems.” American Journal of Rhinology 15(2):135-141.
  50. Ruotsalainen, R., N. Jaakkola, and J.J.K., Jaakkola. 1995. “Dampness and molds in day-care centers as an occupational health problem.” International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 66:369-374.
  51. Rylander, R., M. Norrhall, et al. 1998. “Airways inflammation, atopy and (1-->3)-ß-d-glucan exposure in two schools.” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 158:1685-1687.
  52. Sandora, T.J., M.C. Shih, and D.A. Goldmann. 2008. “Reducing absenteeism from gastrointestinal and respiratory illness in elementary school students: A randomized, controlled trial of an infection-control intervention.”Pediatrics 121:1555-1562.
  53. Savilahti, R., J. Uitti, et al. 2000. “Respiratory morbidity among children following renovation of a water-damaged school.” Archives of Environmental Health 55(6):405-410.
  54. Savilahti, R., J. Uitti, et al. 2001. “Increased prevalence of atopy among children exposed to mold in a school building.” Allergy 56:175-179.
  55. Schneider, M. 2002. “Public school facilities and teaching: Washington, DC and Chicago.” 21st Century School Fund, Washington, D.C.
  56. Seppänen, O., W.J. Fisk, et al. 1999. “Association of ventilation rates and CO2 concentrations with health and other responses in commercial and institutional buildings.” Indoor Air 9(4):226-252.
  57. Shaughnessy, R., U. Shaughnessy, et al. 2006. “A preliminary study on the association between ventilation rates in classrooms and student performance.” Indoor Air 16(6):465-468.
  58. Shendell, D.G., R. Prill, et al. 2004. “Associations between classroom CO2 concentrations and student attendance in Washington and Idaho.” Indoor Air 14 (5):333-341.
  59. Sieber, W.K., M.R. Petersen, et al. 2002. “HVAC characteristics and occupant health.” ASHRAE Journal, September 2002:49-52.
  60. Sieber, W.K., L.T. Stayner, et al. 1996. “The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health indoor environmental evaluation experience. Part Three: Associations between environmental factors and self-reported health conditions.” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 11(12):1387-1392. 
  61. Silverstein, M.D., J.E. Mair, et al. 2001. “School attendance and school performance: A population-based study of children with asthma.” Journal of Pediatrics 139(2):278-283.
  62. Skov, P. and O. Valbjorn. 1987. “The ‘sick’ building syndrome in the office environment: The Danish Town Hall study.” Environment International 13: 339-349.
  63. Skyberg, K., K.R. Skulberg, et al. 1999. “Dust reduction relieves nasal congestion. A controlled intervention study on the effect of office cleaning, using acoustic rhinometry.” Proceedings, Indoor Air '99: The 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate. Edinburgh, Scotland. 1:153-160. 
  64. Skyberg, K., K.R. Skulberg, et al. 2002. “Symptoms prevalence among office employees and associations to building characteristics.” Indoor Air 13(3):246-252.
  65. Smedje, G., D. Norbäck, et al. 1996. “Mental performance by secondary school pupils in relation to the quality of indoor air.” Proceedings, Indoor Air '96: The 7th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate.Nagoya, Japan. 1:413-418.
  66. Smedje, G., D. Norbäck, and C. Edling. 1997. “Asthma among secondary schoolchildren in relation to the school environment.” Clinical and Experimental Allergy 27:1270-1278.
  67. Steerenberg, P.A., S. Nierkens, et al. 2001. “Traffic-related air pollution affects peak expiratory flow, exhaled nitric oxide, and inflammatory nasal markers.” Archives of Environmental Health 56(2):167-174.
  68. Stolz, A.D., A. Knickelbein, and S. Coburn. 2008. “Linking coordinated school health to student success.” Presentation at the Annual Conference of the National Association of School Nurses, Albuquerque, NM.
  69. Sundell, J. 1994. “On the association between building ventilation characteristics, some indoor environmental exposures, some allergic manifestations and subjective symptom reports.” Indoor Air Supplement 2:94.
  70. Sundell, J., T. Lindvall, and B. Stenberg. 1991. “Influence of type of ventilation and outdoor airflow rate on the prevalence of SBS symptoms.” Proceedings, IAQ '91Healthy Buildings. Conference of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Washington, DC. 85-89.
  71. Taskinen, T., A. Hyvärinen, et al. 1999. “Asthma and respiratory infections in school children with special reference to moisture and mold problems in the school.” Acta Pædiatrica, 88:1373-1379.
  72. Taskinen, T., T. Meklin, et al. 1997. “Moisture and mould problems in schools and respiratory manifestations in schoolchildren: Clinical and skin test findings.” Acta Pædiatrica 86:1181-1187.
  73. Vinciullo, F. 2008. “The relationship between multi-component school health programs and school achievement.”Presentation at the Annual Conference of the National Association of School Nurses, Albuquerque, NM. 
  74. Wantke, F., C.M. Demmer, et al. 1996. “Exposure to gaseous formaldehyde induces IgE-mediated sensitization to formaldehyde in school-children.” Clinical and Experimental Allergy 26(3):276-280.
  75. Wargocki, P. and D.P. Wyon. 2006. “Research report on effects of HVAC on student performance.” ASHRAE JournalOctober 2006:22-28.
  76. Wargocki, P. and D.P. Wyon. 2007. “The effects of moderately raised classroom temperatures and classroom ventilation rate on the performance of schoolwork by children.” HVAC&R Research 13(2):193-220.
  77. Wargocki, P., D.P. Wyon, et al. 1999. “Perceived air quality, SBS-symptoms and productivity in an office at two pollution loads.” Proceedings, Indoor Air '99: The 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate.Edinburg, Scotland.2:131-136.
  78. Wargocki, P., D.P. Wyon, et al. 2000. “The effects of outdoor air supply rate in an office on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms and productivity.” Indoor Air 10(4):222-236.
  79. Weitzman, M., L.V. Klerman, et al. 1982. “School absence: A problem for the pediatrician.” Pediatrics 69(6):739-746.
  80. Wheeler, L., S. Merkle, et al. 2006. “Managing asthma in schools: Lessons learned and recommendations.” Journal of School Health 76(6):340-344. 
  81. Wyler, C., C. Braun-Fahrlander, et al. 2000. “Exposure to motor vehicle traffic and allergic sensitization. The Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) Team.” Epidemiology 11(4):450-456.
  82. Wyon, D.P. 2000. “The effects on health and self-estimated productivity of two experimental interventions which reduced airborne dust levels in office premises.” Proceedings, Healthy Buildings 2000, Espoo, Finland. 1:641-646. 
  83. Zock, J., M. Kogevinas, et al. 2001. “Asthma risk, cleaning activities and use of specific cleaning products among Spanish indoor cleaners.” Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health 27:76-81.

Top of Page