An official website of the United States government.

This is not the current EPA website. To navigate to the current EPA website, please go to This website is historical material reflecting the EPA website as it existed on January 19, 2021. This website is no longer updated and links to external websites and some internal pages may not work. More information »

Green Remediation: Best Management Practices for Excavation and Surface Restoration

This fact sheet is one of a series describing best management practices (BMPs) for green remediation, which holistically addresses a cleanup project's (1) energy requirements, (2) air emissions, (3) impacts on water, (4) impacts on land and ecosystems, (5) material consumption and waste generation, and (6) long-term stewardship actions. BMPs can be used for sustainable removal or cleanup activities at contaminated sites under Superfund, corrective action, underground storage tank, and brownfield cleanup programs. Many opportunities exist to reduce the negative impacts of excavation, which commonly include soil erosion, high rates of fuel consumption, transport of air-borne contaminants, uncontrolled stormwater runoff, offsite disposal of excavated material, and ecosystem disturbance. Decisions regarding excavation processes and targets affect follow-up land and surface water restoration strategies as well as ultimate land use. This document can also be accessed at

You may need a PDF reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more.