An official website of the United States government.

This is not the current EPA website. To navigate to the current EPA website, please go to This website is historical material reflecting the EPA website as it existed on January 19, 2021. This website is no longer updated and links to external websites and some internal pages may not work. More information »

Using the Triad Approach to Improve the Cost-effectiveness of Hazardous Waste Site Cleanups

U.S. EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response is promoting more effective strategies for characterizing, monitoring, and cleaning up hazardous waste sites. In particular, a paradigm based on using an integrated triad of systematic planning, dynamic work plans, and real-time measurement technologies is encouraged. A central theme of the triad approach is a clear focus on overall decision quality as the overarching goal of project quality assurance, requiring careful identification and management of potential causes for errors in decision-making (i.e., sources of uncertainty).

You may need a PDF reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more.