This chapter of Quantifying the Multiple Benefits of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: A Guide for State and Local Governments provides policy makers and analysts with information about a range of methods they can use to estimate the emissions and health benefits of energy efficiency and renewable energy. It first describes the methods and key considerations for selecting or using the methods. The chapter then provides case studies illustrating how the methods have been applied and lists examples of relevant tools and resources analysts can use. Building off the direct electricity impacts discussed in Chapter 2, “Estimating the Direct Electricity Impacts of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,” the benefits quantified using methods discussed in this chapter can serve as inputs into subsequent economic assessments discussed in Chapter 5, “Estimating the Economic Benefits of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.”You may need a PDF reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more.