Pulp and Paper Production (MACT I & III): National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Source Categories
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The pulp and paper industry consists of facilities engaged in the production of pulp and/or paper/paperboard. This category includes, but is not limited to:
- integrated mills (where pulp and paper or paperboard are manufactured on- site),
- non-integrated mills (where paper/paperboard or pulp are manufactured, but not both), and
- secondary fiber mills (where waste paper is used as the primary raw material).
This subpart regulates the emissions from the pulp production sources, which include pulping process vents, bleaching process vents, and condensate streams.
Mills that chemically pulp wood using kraft, semi-chemical, sulfite, or soda processes are referred to as MACT I mills. Mills that mechanically pulp wood, or that pulp secondary fiber or non-wood fibers, or that produce paper or paperboard from purchased pulp are referred to as MACT III mills. These standards do not address emissions from recovery area combustion sources (referred to in later sections as MACT II). These sources are being regulated under a separate rule.
The National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for the pulp and paper production sources was originally proposed in 1993 and promulgated in 1998. In these actions, the EPA identified methanol, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, and other hazardous air pollutants were emitted in large quantities from these sources. As a result, this subpart regulates “total HAP” emissions. In general, this regulation requires mills to do the following:
- Collect and incinerate pulping process vent emissions
- Collect and control bleaching process vent emissions with a caustic scrubber
- Eliminate the use of certain bleaching chemicals
- Collect and treat process condensate streams to remove HAPs through biological treatment or steam stripping (kraft mills only)
See the regulations in the section below for more details.
09/11/2012 – Final Rule
12/27/2011 – Proposed Rule
04/13/2004 – Site-Specific Rulemaking for Packaging Corporation of America’s Pulp and Paper Mill Located in Tomahawk, WI, Pursuant to the Joint State/EPA Agreement To Pursue Regulatory Innovation Direct Final Rule
05/14/2001 – Final Rule; technical corrections
01/22/2001- Final Rule; amendments
12/22/2000 – Final Rule; amendments
01/25/2000 – Proposed Rule Amendments
04/12/1999 – Final Rule; interpretation and technical amendments
09/16/1998 – Interpretive Amendments to Final Rule
08/07/1998 – Correction to Final Rule
04/15/1998 – Final Rules
07/15/1996 – Notice of availability
12/17/1993 – Proposed Rule
Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Industry -Background Information for Promulgated Air Emissions Standards: Manufacturing Processes at Kraft, Sulfite, Soda, Semi-Chemical, Mechanical, and Secondary and Non-wood Fiber Mills
The following file Emissions Data Risk and Technology Review of the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Pulp and Paper Industry (subpart S)(1 pg, 257 MB, 2011) provides facility-wide emissions for major sources that submitted data in response to the 2011 data collection survey. This file includes updates provided to EPA during the Risk and Technology Review of the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Pulp and Paper Industry (subpart S) comment period and other updates provided by facilities. If you have any questions, concerns, or updates regarding this data, please contact Kelley Spence at firstname.lastname@example.org.
WATER9 is a Windows based computer program for estimating air emissions of individual waste constituents in wastewater/waste. Further information or a copy of the WATER 9 can be obtained from EPA. You can also contact the Air Emissions Model Hotline at (919) 541-5610 for support or more information about this model.
Pulp and paper manufacturing is subject to the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. Information regarding available and emerging technologies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from pulp and paper manufacturing can be found here.
Applicability Determination Index (ADI). The ADI is maintained by EPA's Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance (OECA) and provides a data base of memoranda dealing with applicability issues. The database is searchable by Subpart.