Related Edison Environmental Center Publications
- Rainwater Collection and Management from Roofs at the Edison Environmental Center. In the past, the EPA’s Edison Environmental Center, a 200-acre federal run facility, directed all rainwater from roofed areas to the existing stormwater conveyance system. Over the last several years, modifications have been made to the practice of discharging stormwater to the existing conveyance system due to federal mandates. Roof runoff from approximately 0.28 ha (0.69 acres) has been directed to rain gardens to infiltrate into the ground while rainfall from another 0.14 ha (0.34 acres) is being captured and used for non-potable purposes. This paper discusses the water quality of the roof runoff directed to the rain gardens and the reductions in usage of potable water due to a rainwater capture system. Approximately 3.6 x 106 L (9.0 x 105 gal) of rainwater is being diverted from the existing stormwater sewer system annually.
- Evaluation of Surface and Subsurface Processes in Permeable Pavement Infiltration Trenches. The hydrologic performance of permeable pavement systems can be affected by clogging of the pavement surface and/or clogging at the interface where the subsurface storage layer meets the underlying soil. As infiltration and exfiltration are the primary functional mechanisms for green infrastructure (GI) stormwater control measures (SCMs), the objective of this study was to evaluate placement of pressure transducers in 2.47-m (8.1-ft) wide permeable pavement strips and develop data analysis techniques to determine when there is a significant change in hydrologic performance to signal a need for maintenance or replacement.
- Modeling the Hydrologic Processes of a Permeable Pavement System. The hydrologic performance of permeable pavement systems can be affected by clogging at the pavement surface and/or clogging at the interface where the subsurface storage layer meets the underlying soil. The objective of this paper was to evaluate changes in infiltration and exfiltration using three pressure transducers. A permeable pavement system can capture stormwater to reduce runoff volume and flow rate, improve onsite groundwater recharge, and enhance pollutant controls within the site. In this study, EPA developed A new unit process model for evaluating the hydrologic processes of a permeable pavement system.
- Factorial study of rain garden design for nitrogen removal. This study explores nutrient treatment in eight outdoor, unvegetated rain gardens based on the following factors: hydraulic loading (two sizes and two flow rates), presence of a subsurface saturated zone, and presence of an introduced carbon source.
- Hydraulic Test of a Bioretention Media Carbon Amendment. A bench-scale experiment was conducted to test the drainage capability of media containing shredded newspaper layers as a carbon amendment. Stormwater was introduced at low and high rates to bins containing zero, one, and two layers of newspaper at varying depths. While there were differences in effluent volumes and flow rates between control and newspaper treatments, surface ponding occurred in all three treatments, suggesting that some other factor besides the newspaper had an effect on drainage properties.
- Application of Time Domain Reflectometers in Urban Settings. Time domain reflectometers (TDRs) are sensors that measure the volumetric water content of soils and porous media. This study demonstrates the use of TDRs for quantifying drainage properties in low impact development (LID) stormwater controls, specifically permeable pavement and rain garden systems.
- Environmental Effects of Pervious Pavement as a Low Impact Development Installation in Urban Regions - Chapter 13 (In Effects of Urbanization on Groundwater: An Engineering Case-based Approach for Sustainable Development). Pervious pavement systems can be used to reduce stormwater runoff volume and are efficient at removing solids from runoff; however, the pollutant removal efficiency for nutrients, metals, and organic contaminants is yet to be determined due to either a lack of data or inconsistent results. Every site is different and care should be taken to examine site conditions, underlying soil characteristics, and local climate prior to determining if the installation of pervious pavement would be an appropriate best management practice for stormwater management at a particular location.
- Promoting Nitrate Removal in Rain Gardens. This research project investigates the performance of rain gardens in removing pollutants, and whether currently-accepted design standards can be adjusted to improve nitrate removal capabilities.