Wetlands Programs Adopted by States and Tribes and Analysis of Core Components
Components of Wetlands Programs Adopted by States and Tribes
States and tribes play a critical role in the protection and management of our nation's wetlands. Most states and many tribes have increased their roles in wetlands protection and management by adopting any of a number of wetlands programs or tools. Components of comprehensive wetlands programs which various states and tribes have adopted include:
- assuming the federal Clean Water Act Section 404 permit program or obtaining State Program General Permits from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers;
- undertaking comprehensive State Wetland Conservation Plans which identify strengths and needs in a state's program, and often develop the framework for a state's wetlands program;
- developing narrative wetland water quality standards;
- applying the Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification program;
- adopting non-regulatory programs such as watershed/wetlands planning initiatives, taxation programs, acquisition programs, and others;
- incorporating wetlands considerations into other state water programs.
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Analysis of Core Components of State Wetland Programs
The Environmental Law Institute, with grant funding from the EPA, has conducted a multi-phased study designed to describe and analyze seven components of state wetland programs: state laws, regulations, and programs; monitoring and assessment; restoration programs and activities; water quality standards; public-private partnerships; coordination among state and federal agencies; and education and outreach activities. Each phase of the study examines a cross-section of states representing various approaches to wetland protection and regulation, as well as geographic diversity.
Phase I report: Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Maine, Michigan, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Washington
Phase II report: Florida, Hawaii, Montana, Nebraska, New Jersey, Oregon, Rhode Island, Texas, Utah, Vermont, West Virginia, and Wisconsin
Phase III report: Alabama, California, Connecticut, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, New Mexico, South Dakota, Virginia, and Wyoming
Phase IV report: Alaska, Delaware, Indiana, Kansas, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi,Nevada, New Hampshire, North Dakota, South Carolina, and Tennessee