An official website of the United States government.

This is not the current EPA website. To navigate to the current EPA website, please go to This website is historical material reflecting the EPA website as it existed on January 19, 2021. This website is no longer updated and links to external websites and some internal pages may not work. More information »

Wildfire Smoke and Your Patients' Health

Wildfire Smoke Course References

Adetona O, Reinhardt TE, Domitrovich J, Broyles G, Adetona AM, Kleinman MT, Ottmar RD, Naeher LP.  Review of the health effects of wildland fire smoke on wildland firefighters and the public. Inhal Toxicol 2016;28(3):95-139. doi: 10.3109/08958378.2016.1145771.

Allen RW, Adar SD, Avol E, Cohen M, Curl CL, Larson T, Liu LJ, Sheppard L, Kaufman JD. Modeling the residential infiltration of outdoor PM(2.5) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air). Environ Health Perspect 2012;120(6):824-830. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1104447.

Brim SN, Rudd RA, Funk RH, Callahan DB. Asthma prevalence among US children in underrepresented minority populations: American Indian/Alaska Native, Chinese, Filipino, and Asian Indian. Pediatrics 2008;122(1):e217-222. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-3825.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017) Asthma.  Retrieved April 19, 2019 from

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018) Basics About COPD.  Retrieved April 4, 2019 from

Chen C, Zhao B. Review of relationship between indoor and outdoor particles: I/O ratio, infiltration factor and penetration factor. Atmospheric Environment 2011;45(2):275-288. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.09.048.

DeFlorio-Barker S, Crooks J, Reyes J, Rappold AG. Cardiopulmonary effects of fine particulate matter exposure among older adults, during wildfire and non-wildfire periods, in the United States 2008-2010. Environ Health Perspect 2019;127(3):37006. doi: 10.1289/ehp3860.

Fisk WJ, Chan WR. Health benefits and costs of filtration interventions that reduce indoor exposure to PM2.5 during wildfires. Indoor Air 2017;27(1):191-204. doi: 10.1111/ina.12285.

Groß, S., Esselborn, M., Weinzierl, B., Wirth, M., Fix, A., and Petzold, A. Aerosol classification by airborne high spectral resolution lidar observations. Atmos. Chem. Phys 2013; 13, 2487–2505. doi:10.5194/acp-13-2487-2013.

Holstius DM, Reid CE, Jesdale BM, Morello-Frosch R. Birth weight following pregnancy during the 2003 Southern California wildfires. Environ Health Perspect 2012; 120(9):1340-1345. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1104515.

Howard-Reed C, Wallace LA, Ott WR. The effect of opening windows on air change rates in two homes. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2002;52(2):147-159.

Hutchinson JA, Vargo J, Milet M, French NHF, Billmire M, Johnson J, Hoshiko S. The San Diego 2007 wildfires and Medi-Cal emergency department presentations, inpatient hospitalizations, and outpatient visits: An observational study of smoke exposure periods and a bidirectional case-crossover analysis. PLoS Med 2018; 15(7):e1002601. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002601.

Kumagai Y, Caroll M, Cohn P. Coping with interface wildfire as a human event: lessons from the disaster/hazards literature. J Forestry 2004;102(6):28-32. 

Liu JC, Pereira G, Uhl SA, Bravo MA, Bell ML. A systematic review of the physical health impacts from non-occupational exposure to wildfire smoke. Environ Res 2015;136:120-132. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2014.10.015.

Ortman JM, Velkoff V, Hogan H. An aging nation: the older population in the United States (PDF). May 2014. In: Current population reports 2014. US Census Bureau.

Radeloff, Volker C., et al. “Rapid Growth of the US Wildland-Urban Interface Raises Wildfire Risk.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 115, no. 13, 2018, pp. 3314–3319., doi:10.1073/pnas.1718850115.

Rappold AG, Cascio WE, Kilaru VJ, Stone SL, Neas LM, Devlin RB, Diaz-Sanchez D. Cardio-respiratory outcomes associated with exposure to wildfire smoke are modified by measures of community health. Environ Health 2012;11:71. doi: 10.1186/1476-069x-11-71

Reid CE, Brauer M, Johnston FH, Jerrett M, Balmes JR, Elliott CT. Critical review of health impacts of wildfire smoke exposure. Environ Health Perspect 2016;124(9):1334-1343. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1409277.

Singer BC, Delp WW, Black DR, Walker IS. Measured performance of filtration and ventilation systems for fine and ultrafine particles and ozone in an unoccupied modern California house. Indoor Air. December (2016). doi: 10.1111/ina.12359.

Sacks JD, Stanek LW, Luben TJ, Johns DO, Buckley BJ, Brown JS, Ross M. Particulate matter-induced health effects: Who is susceptible? Environ Health Perspect 2011;119(4):446-454. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1002255.

Strader SM. Spatiotemporal changes in conterminous US wildfire exposure from 1940 to 2010. Nat Hazards (2018) 92:543-565.

Sublett JL, Seltzer J, Burkhead R, Williams PB, Wedner HJ, Phipatanakul W. Air filters and air cleaners: Rostrum by the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Indoor Allergen Committee. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010; 125:32–8. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2009.08.036 [PubMed: 19910039]

US Environmental Protection Agency. (2009) Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (Final Report, Dec 2009). US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-08/139F, 2009.

USGCRP, 2018: Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume II [Reidmiller, D.R., C.W. Avery, D.R. Easterling, K.E. Kunkel, K.L.M. Lewis, T.K. Maycock, and B.C. Stewart (eds.)]. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 1515 pp. doi: 10.7930/NCA4.2018.

Vicente A, Alves C, et al. Emission factors and detailed chemical composition of smoke particles from the 2010 wildfire season. Atmospheric Environment 2013; 71:295-303.

Wettstein ZS, Hoshiko S, Fahimi J, Harrison RJ, Cascio WE, Rappold AG. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular emergency department visits associated with wildfire smoke exposure in California in 2015. J Am Heart Assoc 2018;7(8). doi: 10.1161/jaha.117.007492.

Xu J, Murphy SL, Kochanek KD, Bastian B, Arias E. Deaths: final data for 2016 (PDF). Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2018; 67(5): 1-75.