EPA national recommended ambient water quality criteria for cadmium reflects the latest scientific information, and current EPA policies and methods. EPA’s water quality criteria for cadmium will provide recommendations to states and tribes authorized to establish water quality standards under the Clean Water Act. In adopting water quality standards, states set exposure protections for aquatic life. In addition to acute effects such as mortality, chronic exposure to cadmium can lead to adverse effects on growth, reproduction, immune and endocrine systems, development, and behavior in aquatic organisms. Cadmium enters the environment by natural and human processes, however, human sources, such as mining and urban processes, are responsible for contributing approximately 90 percent of the cadmium found in surface waters.You may need a PDF reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more.
- Fact Sheet: Aquatic Life Criteria for Cadmium (PDF)(2 pp, 237 K, March 2016, EPA 822-F-16-003)
- Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Cadmium – 2016 (PDF)(721 pp, 9 MB, March 2016, EPA 820-R-16-002)
- External Peer Review Report for the Draft Cadmium Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria (PDF)(24 pp, 918 K)
- EPA Response to External Peer Review Report on the Draft Cadmium Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria (PDF)(53 pp, 702 K)
- EPA Response to Public Comments on 2015 Draft Cadmium Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria (PDF)(27 pp, 543 K)