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Supplementary Training Materials - Additional Information

1.1 Is EPA providing training on the BLM?
EPA is developing several types of training resources to help EPA Regions, states, and tribes use the BLM. Hands-on training classes are being offered at several locations throughout the country, and a web-based training module will be developed as well. The web-based training module is designed for interested stakeholders who are unable to attend an on-site training class. In addition, EPA will be providing a web-cast on the final updated copper criteria, the BLM, and implementation issues.
Lastly, EPA is developing a BLM website that offers the latest news and information related to the BLM and the updated copper criteria, including the training class schedule and, in the future, a link to the web-based training module. For more information on copper.
1.2 Is there a mechanism in place for states and tribes to provide feedback on their use of the BLM?
States and tribes are encouraged to communicate their experiences with the BLM to their respective EPA Regional offices. Comments and questions may also be directed to Headquarters staff identified in Question 1.5.
1.3 Will EPA use the BLM to update other metal criteria?
EPA is planning to update various metals criteria using the BLM. The next group of updated criteria is likely to include silver and/or zinc. Efforts to update both of these contaminants' criteria are currently underway.
1.4 Is EPA working on a saltwater copper BLM?
Yes, EPA is developing a saltwater copper BLM in a cooperative effort with stakeholders.
1.5 Whom may I contact with questions regarding the copper criteria and/or the BLM?
Please contact the following individuals with questions regarding the copper criteria and/or the BLM:
  • Luis Cruz (, Health and Ecological Criteria Division, Office of Science and Technology, U.S. EPA, (202) 566-1095


  • Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2004). Toxicological Profile for Copper. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.
  • Bowen, H.J.M (1985). In D. Hutzinger (ed.), The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, Vol. 1, Part D: The natural environment and biogeochemical cycles, Springer-Verlag, New York. p. 1-26.
  • Colorado Department of Environmental Health (2005). Memo from Andrew Ross to the Permits Unit regarding the "Biotic Ligand Model." 13 October 2005.
  • Di Toro, D.M., H.E. Allen, H.L. Bergman, J.S. Meyer, P.R. Paquin and R.C. Santore (2001). A Biotic Ligand Model of the Acute Toxicity of Metals: I. Technical Basis, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 20:2383-2396.
  • HydroQual, Inc (2005). Biotic Ligand Model Windows Interface, Version 2.1.2. User's Guide and Reference Manual.
  • Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection and U.S. EPA Region 1 (2002). Application of the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM): Copper at Selected Locations in the Taunton River Basin in Massachusetts. Prepared by ENSR Corporation under contract 2000-09/104.
  • Nriagu, J.O., Ed. (1979). Copper in the Environment. Part I: Ecological Cycling; Part II Health Effects. Wiley and Sons, New York.
  • Patterson, J.W., R.A. Minear, E. Gasca and C. Petropoulou (1998). Industrial discharges of metals to water. In: H.E. Allen, A.W. Garrison and G.W. Luther III (Eds.). Metals in Surface Waters. Ann Arbor Press, Chelsea, MI. pp. 37-66.
  • U.S. EPA (1986). Quality Criteria for Water 1986. EPA 440/5-86-001,
  • U.S. EPA (1994). Interim Guidance on Determination and Use of Water-Effect Ratios for Metals. EPA 823-B-94-001.
  • U.S. EPA (1996a). 1995 Updates: Water Quality Criteria Documents for the Protection of Aquatic Life in Ambient Water. EPA 820-B-96-001.
  • U.S. EPA (1996b). The Metals Translator: Guidance for Calculating a Total Recoverable Permit Limit from a Dissolved Criterion. EPA 823-B-96-007.
  • U.S. EPA Office of Pesticides, Pollution, and Toxic Substances (2005). Draft Ecological Risk Assessment for Copper-Containing Pesticides (Copper Sulfate, Copper Group II, and Copper Salts). July 21, 2005.
  • U.S. EPA Office of Water (2001). Streamlined Water-Effects Ratio Procedure for Discharges of Copper. EPA 822-R-01-005.
  • U.S. EPA Office of Water (2002a). Draft Report on Development of Fixed Site Criteria Methodology and Sensitivity Analysis. Task 3: BLM Sensitivity Analysis. Prepared by GLEC for U.S. EPA. Contract No. 68-C-98-0134. Work Assignment 3-38. September 30, 2002.
  • U.S. EPA Office of Water (2002b). Final Report on Development of Methodologies for Incorporating the Copper Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) into Aquatic Life Criteria. Prepared by GLEC for U.S. EPA. Contract No. 68-C-98-0134. Work Assignment 3-38. September 30, 2002.
  • U.S. EPA Office of Water (2003). The Biotic Ligand Model: Technical Support Document for Its Application to the Evaluation of Water Quality Criteria for Copper. EPA 822-R-03-027.
  • U.S. EPA Office of Water (2003). 2003 Draft Update of Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Copper. EPA 822-R-03-026.
  • U.S. EPA Office of Water (2003). Work Assignment 2-22 Preparation of BLM Software and Supporting Documentation. Task: "Truth testing" of BLM calculated criteria values for copper. Prepared by Hydroqual, Inc. for Battelle, Duxbury.
  • U.S. EPA Office of Water (2007). Aquatic Life Ambient Freshwater Quality Criteria – Copper 2007 Revision. EPA 822-R-07-001.

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