As part of EPA’s mission to protect human health and the environment, the agency has completed a final risk evaluation for 1-bromopropane (1-BP) under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). In the final 1-BP risk evaluation, EPA reviewed 25 conditions of use, such as a solvent in vapor degreasing, dry cleaning, spot cleaners, stain removers, adhesives, sealants, and automobile care products.
The 1-BP risk evaluation contains the agency’s final determinations on which conditions of use present unreasonable risks to human health or the environment based on a robust review of the scientific data. To prepare the final risk evaluation, EPA reviewed extensive scientific literature, conducted modeling and other risk assessment activities, and collected toxicity, exposure, and hazard information from many sources.
Releasing a final risk evaluation is the last step in the scientific evaluation process required by TSCA and will guide the agency’s efforts to reduce harmful human exposure to this chemical. EPA will now begin the process of developing ways to address the unreasonable risks identified and has up to one year to propose and take public comments on any risk management actions.
On this page:
- Risk evaluation findings
- Using products safely and alternatives
- Next steps and public participation
- Final risk evaluation and supporting documents
On other pages:
- Read about the steps in EPA’s risk evaluation process for 1-BP.
- Learn more about EPA’s risk evaluation process.
Risk Evaluation Findings
In the August 2020 final risk evaluation, EPA reviewed the exposures and hazards of 1-BP uses and made the following final risk findings on this chemical. This final risk evaluation includes input from the public and peer reviewers as required by TSCA and associated regulations. In making these unreasonable risk determinations EPA considered the hazards and exposure, magnitude of risk, exposed population, severity of the hazard, uncertainties, and other factors.
EPA found no unreasonable risks to the environment from any conditions of use. The agency assessed the impact of 1-BP on aquatic and sediment-dwelling species through surface water and sediment exposures, and to terrestrial species. After reviewing these data, EPA found no unreasonable risk to the environment.
EPA found no unreasonable risks to the general population. The general population could be exposed to 1-BP either through releases to water and air or through waste disposal. EPA found that it was unlikely the general population would be exposed to 1-BP through surface water, drinking water, and sediment.
Potential exposure to 1-BP in ambient air and hazardous waste are under the jurisdiction of other EPA-administered statutes like the Clean Air Act and RCRA. Therefore, these exposure pathways are not part of this risk evaluation. For example, in June 2020 EPA added 1-BP to the Clean Air Act list of air toxics.
EPA found unreasonable risks to human health from 16 out of 25 conditions of use of 1-BP.
- Consumers and bystanders: EPA found unreasonable risks to consumers and bystanders from all consumers use of 1-BP evaluated except one (insulation off-gassing). Common consumer uses include aerosol spray degreasers/cleaners, spot/stain removers, adhesives used in arts and crafts, and automobile care products like air conditioning system cleaners. Unreasonable risks to consumers can come from short-term inhalation and dermal (through the skin) exposure. Unreasonable risks to bystanders can come from short-term inhalation exposure.
- Workers and Occupational Non-Users: EPA found unreasonable risks to workers from most commercial uses of 1-BP. Additionally, EPA found unreasonable risks from most commercial uses of this chemical to workers nearby but not in direct contact with 1-BP (known as occupational non-users). Common commercial uses include solvents for vapor degreasing and cleaning, adhesives, dry cleaning solvents, cleaners for metal and electronic components, and automotive care products like brake cleaner and air conditioning fluid. Unreasonable risks to workers and occupational non-users can come from both short- and long-term inhalation exposure.
Using Products Safely and Alternatives
While EPA is working through the process required by TSCA to address the unreasonable risks found from 1-BP, the information below provides ways to reduce exposure.
For any chemical product, EPA strongly recommends that users carefully follow all instructions on the product’s label. For example, labels on consumer products containing 1-BP may state that the product should be used only with adequate ventilation. The labels may also instruct users to move to fresh air if they feel unwell and contact their physician.
Consumers wishing to avoid exposure should ask retailers if products contain 1-BP and consider not using products that do contain this chemical. Consumers also can choose to not use products where they do not know the ingredients. Examples of consumer products that could contain this chemical include aerosol spray degreasers/cleaners, spot/stain removers, adhesives used in arts and crafts, and automobile care products like air conditioning system cleaners.
Workers using 1-BP products should continue to follow label instructions and applicable workplace regulations and should properly use appropriate personal protective equipment. EPA strongly recommends that workers and employers should consider the Hazard Alert issued by OSHA and NIOSH.
There are many solvents on the market, some of which might be suitable replacements for 1-BP depending on the condition of use. Alternatives can include mechanical cleaning techniques or products that do not contain 1-BP. For example, advances in both technology and garment care have resulted in alternatives to 1-BP and other dry-cleaning solvents.
Next Steps and Public Participation
The next step in the process required by TSCA is risk management. EPA will propose and take public comments on actions to address the unreasonable risks identified in the risk evaluation. According to TSCA, the agency must finalize those actions within two years of completing the final risk evaluation. EPA’s proposed regulations could include requirements on how the chemical is used, or limiting or prohibiting the manufacture, processing, distribution in commerce, use, or disposal of this chemical substance, as applicable.
EPA is committed to being open and transparent as the agency follows the process required by the law for evaluating unreasonable risks from chemicals. EPA will continue to keep the public updated as the agency moves through the risk management process. By following the comprehensive risk evaluation process required by TSCA ensures that EPA has confidence in our final conclusions about whether a chemical substance poses any unreasonable risks to health or the environment under the conditions of use. This then allows the public to have confidence in the risk management actions taken to ensure the safety of chemicals on the market.
There will be additional opportunities for public participation. Just like the risk evaluation process, there will be opportunities for public comment as EPA works to propose and finalize risk management actions for 1-BP. You can stay informed by signing for our email alerts or checking the public docket at EPA-HQ-OPPT-2019-0235 at www.regulations.gov.
Final Risk Evaluation and Supporting Documents
Below are the final risk evaluation for 1-BP, non-technical summary, response to comments, and other supporting documents.You may need a PDF reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more.
- Risk Evaluation for 1-Bromopropane (PDF)(486 pp, 8 MB)
- Nontechnical Summary of the Risk Evaluation for 1-Bromopropane (PDF)(5 pp, 226 K)
- Summary of External Peer Review and Public Comments and Disposition for 1-Bromopropane (PDF)(120 pp, 1 MB)
- Systematic Review Supplemental File: Data Quality Evaluation of Environmental Fate and Transport Studies (PDF)(28 pp, 381 K)
- Systematic Review Supplemental File: Data Extraction Tables for Environmental Fate and Transport Studies (PDF)(4 pp, 152 K)
- Systematic Review Supplemental File: Data Quality Evaluation for Release and Occupational Exposure (PDF)(101 pp, 1 MB)
- Systematic Review Supplemental File: Data Quality Evaluation for Release and Occupational Exposure - Common Sources (PDF)(53 pp, 1 MB)
- Systematic Review Supplemental File: Data Quality Evaluation for Consumer Exposure (PDF)(33 pp, 413 K)
- Systematic Review Supplemental File: Data Extraction for Consumer Exposure (PDF)(4 pp, 359 K)
- Systematic Review Supplemental File: Data Quality Evaluation of Ecological Hazard Study (PDF)(5 pp, 333 K)
- Systematic Review Supplemental File: Updates to Data Quality Criteria for Epidemiological Studies (PDF)(16 pp, 1 MB)
- Systematic Review Supplemental File: Data Quality Evaluation of Human Health Hazard Studies - Epidemiologic Studies (PDF)(16 pp, 388 K)
- Systematic Review Supplemental File: Data Quality Evaluation of Human Health Hazard Studies - Animal and In Vitro Studies (PDF)(120 pp, 766 K)
- Supplemental File: Information on Occupational Exposure Assessment (PDF)(191 pp, 4 MB)
- Supplemental File: Human Health Benchmark Dose Modeling (PDF)(139 pp, 2 MB)
- Systematic Review Supplemental File: Data Quality Evaluation of Physical-Chemical Property Studies (PDF)(16 pp, 265 K)