Biosolids Analytical Methods and Sampling Procedures
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Information on methods and sampling procedures for biosolids managers.
40 CFR Part 503, promulgated in 1993, identified allowable methods to be used for four pathogens, inorganic pollutants, and some physical and aggregate properties of biosolids. The list of allowable methods was updated in 2007 when EPA promulgated an update to 40 CFR Part 503.
- Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants; Analytical Methods for Biological Pollutants in Wastewater and Sewage Sludge: Final Rule
40 CFR §503.8(b) "Methods. The materials listed below are incorporated by reference in this part. These incorporations by reference were approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. The materials are incorporated as they exist on the date of approval, and notice of any change in these materials will be published in the Federal Register. They are available for inspection at the HQ Water Docket Center, EPA/DC, EPA West, Room B102, 1301 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC, and at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030. Copies may be obtained from the standard producer or publisher listed in the regulation. The methods in the materials listed below (or in 40 CFR Part 136) shall be used to analyze samples of sewage sludge."
The following table summarizes available analytical methods for regulated pollutants found in biosolids.
Analytical Methods for Regulated Pollutants Found in Biosolids
|Pollutant||Methods Source||Methods Number||Reference|
|Enteric Viruses||“Standard Practice for Recovery of Viruses From Wastewater Sludges”, 1992 Annual Book of ASTM Standards: Section 11 - Water and Environmental Technology, ASTM, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103-1187.||ASTM D 4994-89||Method|
|Fecal Coliform||“Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater”, 18th Edition, 1992, American Public Health Association, 1015 15th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005.||Part 9221 E||9221 E (1992) is no longer available. 9221 E (2017)|
|“Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater”, 18th Edition, 1992, American Public Health Association, 1015 15th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005.||Part 9222 D||9222 D (1992) is no longer available. 9222 D (2017)|
|40 CFR Part 136, Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants||EPA Method 1680||Method|
|40 CFR Part 136, Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants||EPA Method 1681||Method|
|Helminth Ova||Yanko, W.A., “Occurrence of Pathogens in Distribution and Marketing Municipal Sludges”, EPA 600/1-87-014, 1987. National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161 (PB 88-154273/AS).||Yanko, 1987||Method|
|Salmonella sp. bacteria||“Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater”, 18th Edition, 1992, American Public Health Association, 1015 15th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005||
Part 9260 D
|9260 D (1992) is no longer available. 9260 D (2017)|
|Kenner, B.A. and H.P. Clark, “Detection and enumeration of Salmonella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa”, Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 46, No. 9, September 1974, pp. 2163-2171. Water Environment Federation, 601 Wythe Street, Alexandria, Virginia 22314.||Kenner and Clark, 1974||Method|
|40 CFR Part 136, Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants||EPA Method 1682||Method|
|Specific oxygen uptake rate||“Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater”, 18th Edition, 1992, American Public Health Association, 1015 15th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005.||Part 2710 B||2710 B (1992) is no longer available. 2710 B (2017)|
|Total, fixed, and volatile solids||Part 2540 G||2540 G (1992) is no longer available. 2540 G (2017)|
|Inorganic pollutants||“Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods”, EPA Publication SW-846, Second Edition (1982) with Updates I (April 1984) and II (April 1985) and Third Edition (November 1986) with Revision I (December 1987). Second Edition and Updates I and II are available from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161 (PB-87-120-291). Third Edition and Revision I are available from Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, 941 North Capitol Street, NE, Washington, DC 20002 (Document Number 955-001-00000-1).||SW-846 6010||SW-846 6010 is no longer available. SW-846 6010D|
|SW-846 7061||SW-846 7061 is no longer available. SW-846 7061A|
|SW-846 7000A||SW-846 7000A is no longer available. SW-846 7000B|
|SW-846 7470||SW-846 7470 is no longer available. SW-846 7470A|
|SW-846 7471||SW-846 7471 is no longer available. SW-846 7471B|
Studies and Guidance Related to Biosolids Methods and Sampling
- Study: Multimedia Sampling During the Application of Biosolids on a Land Test Site
The goal of this research study was to evaluate air and soil sampling methods and analytical techniques for commercial land application of biosolids.
- POTW Sludge Sampling and Analysis Guidance Document
This manual was developed to provide guidance on implementing a sampling and analysis program, information gathering and permit compliance to POTW operators, engineers, managers, chemists and permit writers.
- Assessment of the Effects of Holding Time on Fecal Coliform and Salmonella Concentrations in Biosolids
The purpose of this study was to determine whether biosolid samples can be held for 24 hours without significant change in bacterial densities for these analytes.
- Control of Pathogens and Vector Attraction in Sewage Sludge
This document is not regulatory in nature and is only intended to serve as a guide to pathogen and vector attraction reduction, including detailed information on sampling procedures and methods.