This document describes the risk assessment conducted to determine the concentrations of dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that can be present in biosolids and remain protective of human health. This risk-based concentration limit was generated by evaluating cancer risks for individuals who may be exposed to these constituents if biosolids are applied to agricultural fields. The goal of this risk assessment was to estimate a national distribution of the incremental increase in individual lifetime risk of developing cancer due to exposure to dioxins, furans, and PCBs potentially present in the biosolids for farm families who apply biosolids as fertilizer or soil conditioner.You may need a PDF reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more.
- Exposure Analysis for Dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Sewage Sludge (PDF)(549 pp, 5 MB, October 2003)