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Section 404 of the Clean Water Act

Appalachian Stream Mitigation Workshop under CWA Section 404

The Appalachian Stream Mitigation Workshop was presented by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), and the U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) from April 11 – 15, 2011 in Lexington, Kentucky.

The objective of the Workshop was to present information that will allow regulators and resource agencies to improve their review of compensatory stream mitigation plans. The workshop was developed for state and federal regulatory and resource agencies, who review, comment on and/or approve compensatory mitigation plans for surface coal mining projects in Appalachia.

Note: The content of presentations and supporting materials, including the mention of trade names or commercial products, does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. These materials are not a regulation or rule and do not impose any binding requirements on USEPA, DOI, Corps or any other federal or state agency, or the public.

A. Introduction

See the Introduction Letter from the Agency Sponsors (PDF) (4 pp, 203K)

B. Session Presentations

  1. 2008 Compensatory Mitigation for the Losses of Aquatic Resources Final Rule
  2. SMCRA's Requirements for the Protection of Streams (PDF) (25 pp, 381K)
  3. Local Working Agreements and the TN SOPs (PDF) (28 pp, 969K)
  4. General Stream Principles
  5. Assessing Streams in Appalachia (PDF) (27 pp, 1.8MB)
  6. Functional Objectives for Stream Restoration and the Stream Functions Pyramid
  7. HGM Functional Assessment Methodology Validation (PDF) (30 pp, 2.9MB)
  8. Water Quality Assessment and Management (PDF) (31 pp, 608K)
  9. Development of the WV Stream and Wetlands Valuation Metric (PDF) (36 pp, 3.5MB)
  10. Application of the WV Stream and Wetland Valuation Metric (PDF) (29 pp, 1.8MB)
  11. Regional Curve Development and Use in Stream Restoration and Hydrologic Assessment in High Gradient Headwater Streams (PDF) (50 pp, 4.1MB)
  12. Natural Stream Channel Design Techniques and Review (PDF) (51 pp, 6.7MB)
  13. Goal Setting, Performance Standards and Monitoring For Stream Mitigation (PDF) (32 pp, 4.3MB)
  14. Deed Restrictions/Conservation Easements and Appropriate Considerations When Perpetual Protection Is Not Provided (PDF) (42 pp, 1.3MB)
  15. Opportunities and Limitations for Water Quality Improvement and Stream Restoration under SMCRA (PDF) (53 pp, 3.5MB)
  16. NWP 49 Overview and Application (PDF) (11 pp, 316K)
  17. Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative (ARRI) (PDF) (29 pp, 8.2MB)
  18. Principles for Establishing Ecologically Successful Riparian Corridors (PDF) (33 pp, 7.2MB)
  19. Valley Fill Design and Construction Alternatives to Improve Ecological Performance (PDF) (106 pp, 13.7MB)
  20. Removal and Restoration of In-Stream Sediment Ponds
  21. SMCRA-CWA Coordination in the Field (PDF) (38 pp, 4MB)
  22. Off-Site Mitigation Options

C. Additional Resources

  1. 2008 Mitigation Rule text, training materials, and additional resourcesRecent Resources (PDF) (2 pp, 29K)
  2. Agouridis, C. T., Wightman, S. J., Barton, C. D., Planting A Riparian Buffer, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Lexington, KY. (PDF) (8 pp, 3.2MB) Exit
  3. Agouridis, C.T., C.D. Barton, and R.C. Warner.  2009. Recreating a Headwater Stream System on a Head-Of-Hollow Fill: A Kentucky Case Study.  In K.C. Vories and A. Caswell (eds.) Proceedings of Geomorphic Reclamation and Natural Stream Design: A Technical Interactive Forum.  USDOI Office of Surface Mining and Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale Illinois. (PDF) (568 pp, 34.8MB) Exit
  4. Burger, J., D. Graves, P. Angel, V. Davis, and C. Zipper.  2005.  The Forestry Reclamation Approach.  Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative (ARRI) Forest Reclamation Advisory No. 2. (PDF) (4 pp, 565K) Exit
  5. Fischenich, J.C. (2006). Functional objectives for stream restoration. EMRRP Technical Notes Collection (ERDC TN-EMRRP-SR-52). Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center. (PDF) (18 pp, 350K) Exit
  6. Harman, W. A., Starr, R. R., Natural Channel Design Review Checklist, January 2008 (PDF) (51 pp, 1.5MB) | Excel Worksheet (39K)
  7. Harman, W. A., Starr, R. R., Stream Functions Pyramid, 2011,  Diagram (PDF) (2 pp, 106K) Exit and Factsheet (PDF) (4 pp, 4MB) Exit
  8. Local Interagency Working Agreement for Coal Mining Permitting, Compliance and Enforcement Actions in Tennessee Under the Clean Water Act, the Surface Mining Control and reclamation Act, and the Endangered Species Act ("TN LIWA and SOPs") Exit
  9. Memorandum: Assessment of Stream Ecosystem Structure and Function under Clean Water Act Section 404 Associated with Review of Permits for Appalachian Surface Coal Mining, July 30, 2010 (PDF) (3 pp, 153K)
  10. Methods for Assessing Habitat in Flowing Waters: Using the Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index (QHEI) – Ohio EPA (June 2006) Exit
  11. Operational Draft Regional Guidebook for the Functional Assessment of High-gradient Ephemeral and Intermittent Headwater Streams in Western West Virginia and Eastern Kentucky – U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, July 2010 ("HGM Stream Guidebook") Exit
  12. Primary Headwater Habitat Evaluation ("HHEI") – Ohio EPA (October 24, 2002) Exit
  13. Somerville, D.E. 2010. Stream Assessment and Mitigation Protocols: A Review of Commonalities and Differences, May 4, 2010, Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds (Contract No. GS-00F-0032M). Washington, D.C. (PDF) (155 pp, 1MB)
  14. Somerville, D.E. and B.A. Pruitt. 2004. Physical Stream Assessment: A Review of Selected Protocols for Use in the Clean Water Act Section 404 Program. September 2004, Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds, Wetlands Division (Order No. 3W-0503- NATX). Washington, D.C. (PDF) (212 pp, 1.2MB)
  15. Taylor, T.J., C.T. Agouridis, R.C. Warner, and C.D. Barton.  2009.  Runoff Curve Numbers for Loose-dumped Spoil.  International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment 23(2): 103-120.
  16. Taylor, T.J., C.T. Agouridis, R.C. Warner, C.D. Barton, and P.N. Angel.  2009.  Hydrologic Characteristics of Appalachian Loose Dumped Spoil in the Cumberland Plateau of Eastern Kentucky.  Hydrological Processes 23(23): 3373-3381.
  17. Unified Stream Methodology U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Norfolk District and Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, January 2007 (not used in the coal fields) Exit
  18. V. Davis, J. Franklin, C. Zipper, P. Angel, Planting Hardwood Tree Seedlings on Reclaimed Mine Land in Appalachia, Forest Reclamation Advisory No. 7,  February 2010. (PDF) (8 pp, 1MB) Exit
  19. West Virginia Interagency Review Team. 2010. West Virginia Stream and Wetland Valuation Metric, Version 1.1. March 2010. USACE Huntington District, USACE Pittsburgh District, USEPA, USFWS, USDA NRCS, West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, and West Virginia Division of Natural Resources.West Virginia Stream and Wetland Valuation Metric Exit