An official website of the United States government.

This is not the current EPA website. To navigate to the current EPA website, please go to This website is historical material reflecting the EPA website as it existed on January 19, 2021. This website is no longer updated and links to external websites and some internal pages may not work. More information »


Superfund Enforcement Publications

Superfund cleanup enforcement  publications include a variety of documents:

Handbook/Manual/Training Videos

The Revitalizing Handbook - Addressing Liability Concerns at Contaminated Properties. The "Revitalization Handbook" web page provides access to the current edition of the cleanup enforcement handbook, a compilation of tools and a discussion of how to use them in evaluating the benefits of revitalizing contaminated property.

PRP Search Manual (Sept. 2017). The "PRP Search Manual" web page provides access to the 2017 edition of the guidance manual on how to search for potentially responsible parties (PRPs) that may be liable for cleanup at a Superfund site.

PRP Search Training Videos (2015). Eight-part video training series intended to help you conduct thorough and accurate searches for potentially responsible parties (PRPs). Web page includes links to training videos on EPA's YouTube channel, training presentations, and supporting documents.

Implementing Institutional Controls in Indian Country (November 2013). Handbook answers questions for EPA regional offices staff on implementing institutional controls in Indian country as part of a cleanup project.

Reports/Reference Guides

Bulletin: EPA Reduces Lead Exposure Through Cleanup Enforcement (December 2019 - November 2020). Each bulletin examines Superfund and RCRA corrective action enforcement actions over the course of a fiscal year to address the cleanup of lead contamination at sites and facilties.

Examine Opportunities to Achieve Protective Cleanup at NPL-Caliber Sites Without Listing on the NPL: Summary of Findings (July 2019). Summary of the Superfund Task Force Recommendation 13 workgroup review other federal, state and tribal approaches that may be used in lieu of listing a site on the NPL.

Provide Reduced Oversight Incentives to Cooperative, High Performing PRPs (July 2019). Summary of Superfund Task Force Recommendation 16 workgroup conclusions and recommendations on how EPA can restructure the cleanup process and reduce oversight for cooperative PRPs.

Superfund Task Force Recommendation 20 (Identify Opportunities to Engage Independent Third Parties to Oversee Certain Aspects of PRP-Lead Cleanups): Workgroup Findings and Recommendations (November 7, 2018). Memorandum provides the Superfund Task Force (SFTF) Recommendation 20 workgroup's findings and recommendations on opportunities to engage independent third parties to oversee certain aspects of potentially responsible party (PRP) lead cleanups at Superfund sites.

Next Generation Cleanup Compendium of Examples (September 2016). Compendium is to expand how Next Generation Compliance approaches have been used to improve environmental cleanup performance under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and state cleanup authorities.

Community Engagement Initiative: Compilation of EPA's Activities Encouraging Community Engagement in Superfund Enforcement (September 2014). Report lists activities that can be considered for use, as appropriate, for more meaningful involvement of communities in the Superfund enforcement process.

Liability Reference Guide for Siting Renewable Energy on Contaminated Properties (July 2014). Reference document provides answers to renewable energy developers' common questions associated with liability and potentially contaminated property.

Securing Cleanup from Ashes at the Puma Energy Caribe Site (June 2014). Case study of the cleanup work and enforcement tools used at the Puma Energy Caribe Site in Puerto Rico.

From Midvale Slag to Bingham Junction: A Superfund Success Story (July 2012). Case study explores how an EPA Region 8 project team included consideration of future redevelopment at the Midvale Slag Superfund Site and the use of innovative enforcement mechanisms.

PRP Search Benchmarking and Regional Practices Evaluation (September 2010). Report evaluates regional PRP search programs to identify practices indicative of enforcement success and barriers to achieving it.

Superfund Alternative Approach Baseline Assessment (April 14, 2011). Report provides a summarized description of the Superfund Alternative (SA) approach , including a brief history of its evolution, its current use, recent SA evaluation findings, and recommendations for the future use of the SA approach.

Top 10 Questions to Ask When Buying a Superfund Site  (May 2008). Ten answers to questions a prospective purchaser may have when deciding whether to purchase property at a privately owned Superfund site.

Results of the Superfund Alternative Approach Evaluation (September 2007). Report on the results of the evaluation of 18 month pilot of regional implementation of Superfund alternative approach.

Top of Page

Fact Sheets/Frequent Questions

Small Business Resources Information Sheet (May 2015).  Document provides an array of resources, including workshops, training sessions, hotlines, websites and guides, to help small businesses understand and comply with federal and state environmental laws. EPA's policy and practice is to include the information sheet to every small business at the time EPA has initial enforcement contact with a small business, including Superfund general and special notice letters and cost recovery demand letters.

Fact Sheet: Superfund Special Accounts (PDF)(3 pp, 274 K, About PDF) (December 2013). Overview of the Agency's Superfund special accounts program. Special accounts are an important part of the Superfund program and play a critical role in achieving cleanup of contaminated sites nationwide.

Special Account Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) (PDF) (7 pp, 587 K, About PDF) December 2013. Answers to questions about special accounts and how they are established, used, and managed.

Engaging Early in the Superfund Process, Enabling Cleanup and Reuse: The Former Spellman Engineering Site in Orlando, Florida (PDF) (14 pp, 1.89 MB, About PDF) Case study explores the working relationships and innovative settlement agreements that have led to the cleanup of the Former Spellman Engineering site in Orlando, Florida, and reuse of an adjacent property.  The case study discusses the first-ever Contiguous Property Owner (CPO) Agreement in the nation, where a non-liable adjacent property owner agreed to voluntarily clean up a Superfund Site.

Linking Cleanup and Reuse: The MDI Superfund Site and Houston's Fifth Ward (PDF)(12 pp, 3.14 MB, About PDF) (October 2008). Case study explores the working relationships and key dynamics that have led to the successful cleanup and planned reuse of the MDI Superfund site in Houston, Texas.  The case study describes the Agreed Order on Consent and Covenant Not to Sue, the first-ever agreement between EPA and a non-liable party for the cleanup of a Superfund site.  The agreement facilitated the acquisition and cleanup of the site by a private party.

Superfund and Small Waste Contributors (May 2008). This pamphlet describes what Superfund is, who potentially responsible parties are, and why a de minimis settlement may be to your advantage.

Windfall Lien Administrative Procedures Guidance: Frequent Questions (April 2008). Frequent questions relating to EPA's Windfall Liens Administrative Procedures guidance document.

Understanding the Superfund Alternative Approach (April 2008). Information sheet to explain the Superfund alternative approach to interested external stakeholders.

CERCLA Lender Liability Exemption: Updated Questions and Answers (July 2007). Updated fact sheet on CERCLA liability for secured creditors for the cleanup of contaminated property.

Good Samaritan Administrative Tools - Fact Sheet (June 6, 2007). Fact sheet on the 2007 interim administrative tools to reduce barriers under Superfund for volunteers ("Good Samaritans") to clean up abandoned hard rock mines as part of the Good Samaritan Initiative.

The Superfund Enforcement Process: How it Works (July 1, 1988). Fact sheet describes the enforcement authorities and the process followed under Superfund.

Top of Page


Superfund 104(e) Information Request Collection of Questions. EPA uses many approaches to do this research, including the use of "information request letters" to gather information. The collection of questions, divided into 36 specific categories, is intended to assist the Regions in tailoring specific information requests based on the type of potentially responsible party and their involvement at a site.

Top of Page