Avoided Emission Factors Generated from AVERT
AVERT uses a peer-reviewed methodology to analyze electric power sector impacts on an hour-by-hour basis, but it can also produce average emission factors for each AVERT region. EPA has used AVERT to produce marginal emission factors for each AVERT region and a weighted average for the nation each year from 2007 to 2019. These emission factors can be used for quick estimates of avoided NOx, SO2, CO2, and PM2.5 emissions and are divided into six categories: onshore wind, offshore wind, rooftop-scale photovoltaic, utility-scale photovoltaic, portfolio energy efficiency, and uniform energy efficiency.
On June 1, 2018, EPA updated AVERT-generated emission factors to represent a more commonly used EE/RE scenario. They now reflect a 0.5% displacement of the existing regional demand. On May 30, 2019, EPA added 2018 emission factors and revised all years to reflect year-specific transmission and distribution line loss factors (where appropriate) from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. On September 15, 2020, EPA added 2019 emission factors and revised 2017 and 2018 emission factors to reflect the new regions in AVERT v3.0. You can download the emission factors in Excel format below.