Figures: Manipulation of Exposure at Other Sites
Figure 4-5a. Manipulation of Exposure at Other Sites, Supports
The figure below illustrates that an impairment (dead fish) occurs when the causal agent (an effluent of the same type as at the impaired site) is present but not when it is removed (the effluent is shut down).
Figure 4-5b. Manipulation of Exposure at Other Sites, Refutes
The figure below illustrates that an impairment (dead fish) occurs when the causal agent is present (an effluent of the same type as at the impaired site) and when it is removed (the effluent is shut down).
Explanation of the Types of Evidence Illustrations
This description applies to each of the types of evidence illustrations. These illustrations provide graphic explanations of the types of evidence. They are somewhat abstract to convey that they are representative of the concept rather than illustrations of particular applications. The live fish (green and upright) represent unimpaired organisms, populations or communities of all types, not just fish. The dead fish (white and belly-up at the surface) represent all biological impairments, not just dead fish. The pipe represents all sources and the yellow effluent plume represents all causal agents (stressors), not just effluents or even chemicals. Clock faces represent the passage of time, not the particular time difference illustrated. Fish in beakers represent laboratory tests. Other graphic elements used in particular illustrations are explained in the caption.