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CADDIS Volume 1

Figures: Temporal Sequence

Figure 3-9a. Temporal Sequence, Supports

The impairment (dead fish) occurred only after initiation of the candidate causal agent (the effluent).

Figure 3-9a shows the dead fish occurred only after time passes and the impairment spreads.Figure 3-9a. Temporal Sequence, Supports the Case

Figure 3-9b. Temporal Sequence, Refutes

The impairment (dead fish) occurred before the candidate causal agent (the effluent).

Figure 3-9b shows the dead fish were in the stream before and after time passes and the impairment spreads.Figure 3-9b. Temporal Sequence, Refutes the Case

Explanation of the Types of Evidence Illustrations

This description applies to each of the types of evidence illustrations. These illustrations provide graphic explanations of the types of evidence. They are somewhat abstract to convey that they are representative of the concept rather than illustrations of particular applications. The live fish (green and upright) represent unimpaired organisms, populations or communities of all types, not just fish. The dead fish (white and belly-up at the surface) represent all biological impairments, not just dead fish. The pipe represents all sources and the yellow effluent plume represents all causal agents (stressors), not just effluents or even chemicals. Clock faces represent the passage of time, not the particular time difference illustrated. Fish in beakers represent laboratory tests. Other graphic elements used in particular illustrations are explained in the caption.

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